Posted in musings


I believe, there are essentially three kinds of problems, technical, engineering and research problems. Most the problems that we come across in our work lives are just technical problems. Rarely do we encounter some engineering problems and research problems are far away.

This is just my opinion.

Posted in musings

Myths of Creativity

A Harvard Business School Professor says that creativity cannot be gotten by doing the following things:

  • By expecting that only some people can be creative and not others –  this is a myth not only in the heads of entrepreneurs, but also in the heads of individual employees – again in both cases where you include yourself in the creative group and out of it.
  • Money is a creativity motivator –  her research found that once people become conscious of tying with rewards, their psyches cannot fly free anymore.
  • Time pressure fuels creativity – may be true, but again so long as time pressure is not having a negative effect on the person. It can eat up the psyche. It is necessary to have the head free of things.
  • Fear forces breakthroughs –  Even to me, these things seem unintuitive. Creativity does not come this way.
  • Competition beats collaboration w.r.t creativity – again, stress – bad psyche, bad creativity.

After all, such alleged myths, the author also tells what are necessary pre-conditions for a creative mind:

  • Love the work you do i.e. have intrinsic motivation.
  • Deeply engage in the work without any distractions.
  • It depends on experience, talent, ability to think in different ways, capacity to push through uncreative dry spells.
Posted in storage

How can you lose your data?

Robin Harris enumerates many ways in which you can lose your data. He is not talking only about disks because, disks are just one entity in the story.

This is a world, where complex problems are solved by building systems, where each sub system will do its job and interact with the other subsystem on a whole. The storage sub system is no exception. There are different components that make it up – controllers, disks, software that sits at all layers etc. Each of them can be faulty and can potentially can damage the data that is ultimately stored on the disk.

However, some components are more amenable to failure than others because of their tryst with physics. For example, disks can fail more frequently than controllers and caches as it has a lot of moving parts. Apart from the disk, the software that resides on the controllers and disks can be buggy and can lose data. Robin makes a good coverage of the same.

The point that is driven home is this: You cannot avoid losing all those hardware, but you can avoid losing your data !! – Take backups and save your skin.

I have been thinking about it for quite sometime now (been motivated or concerned after I read a couple of papers from CMU and Google which talks about disk failures). I don’t want to have disk as my back up media again. (I am still not convinced to have disk as the backup media). I am fine with USB drives (i.e. flash drives), CDs/DVDs for the only reason that they don’t have any moving parts and can potentially live longer!. It is my TBD. I will have to start backing up my data – before it is too late.

Posted in software

Design principles

I have been reading Practical Data Structures in C++ now a days. There the author suggests the following design principles while writing a program:

  • Maintain the viewpoint of a practitioner: By this the author intends to say that first get the program working, by whatever inelegant means, then try to find more elegant ways of doing the same thing, provided it is warranted.
  • There is no such thing as a complex solution: Keep the design as simple as possible. The simple solution is separated from you not by distance, but by time.
  • Don’t overgeneralize: Over generalizing can lead to a lot of special cases and thus may incur a lot of overhead.
  • Follow the 80-20 rule: Spend most of your effort on that 20% of code.
  • Design first, then optimize: He means that do the optimization first at the design level and then at the implementation level.
  • Try to get the most leverage out of any overhead you introduce.
  • You shouldn’t have to pay for something that you are not going to use.

The last two principles need some thought.

Posted in storage

1 TB disk

is finally here. Tech Report has tested the new Hitachi 7K1000 hard drive. Some quick facts are:

  • 32 MB cache
  • 200GB per platter that gives a data transfer rate of 300MB/sec
  • UER of 1.0E15 bits or 1.0E14 bytes transferred, which means that we will encounter an error after a disk is read for about 100 times.

There may be many techniques for getting around with the UER problem. For example, we may, for scrubbing, use only oppurtunistic scanning so that we don’t end up scanning the surface separately.

Jim Gray (now missing, lost into the seas) predicted that the pipe that comes out of the hard disk is not getting fat, while the storage tank itself is getting fatter. With the recording density increasing, one can see that the throughput is also increasing. 300MB/sec is app. 10 times better than that of a normal disk, which means that an entire disk can be read in about a couple of hours!!

What are the new problems that may arise with a 1 TB disk? With the data capacity increasing, any complete disk scan operation (like disk scrubbing, backup, indexing etc.) will increase the chances of facing an unrecoverable error. So, these disk sweep operations have to be kept at minimum or have to be batched.

Another problem is that failure of a disk results in the loss of an entire TB of data. No point in going for a RAID-5 drive, if you cannot afford more than two disks. Even if you, Robbin Harris has already pointed out that RAID-5 won’t work as the number of disks in the RAID-5 array increases. So, it mostly have to be a mirrored data.

Geeki’s take:

I have learned that there are two kinds of people in this world: those who crib/complain and those who do not.

Posted in wisdom


Carmin Coyote in his Slow leadership blog, offers some down to earth practical advice on control

  1. Everyone must accept responsibility for his or her own speech and actions. No excuses.
  2. No one can be held accountable for results that are outside their control.
  3. Excellence is shown by controlling what can be controlled and skillfully influencing those areas where influence is possible.
Posted in musings


From a guy, who finished his Ph.D.

 I’d like to express my heart-felt thanks to my advisors, Andrea Arpaci-Dusseau and Remzi Arpaci-Dusseau, for without them this Ph.D. would have been a distant dream. When even my parents were doubtful about my intentions to pursue a doctorate, Andrea and Remzi encouraged and supported my decision.

The initial sparks of interest in research were created by Andrea when I took the Advanced Operating Systems course under her. Her thoroughness and deep thoughts (to interpret which, I usually need Remzi’s help) never cease to amaze me. When I often get buried in small trivial details, she rescues me out with her broad and high-level perspectives.

I didn’t realize that one can do serious research and have fun at the same time until I met Remzi. To me, he is the “Master in the art of living”. He listens patiently to my muddled ideas, sharpens my thought process, guides me throughout our projects, helps me write interesting papers, and more importantly, somehow makes me feel as though I did everything, while in reality, without his guidance there’d have been a lot of crazy ideas and not one solid work.

Andrea and Remzi are the source of inspiration and role models to me. Great any times in our weekly meetings (several of which never lasted more than 10 minutes, perhaps due to my lack of capacity to keep a conversation going), I was awed by the clarity, breadth, and depth of their thoughts. At the end of our meetings,  I usually end-up wondering if I can ever raise to their level of thinking. In fact, I enjoy working with them so much that sometimes I wish I can go back in time and start fresh again, avoid all the mistakes I did while trying to learn more from them and hopefully, have longer meetings.

Interesting, isnt it?

Posted in wisdom


Stuff is at the heart of economics. Stuff is what is produced by economic activity. The whole idea of a growing society is based on producing stuff which is (to be) consumed by people. In today’s world people consume a lot of stuff, when compared to yester century’s world. More economic activity means more natural resources are processed, more stuff is consumed and more waste is generated. Some consumption is good, some is bad (in terms of both the stuff itself and the waste it generates).

Paul Graham (the YCombinator guy and also a LISPer) is worried about stuff. He gives his reasons for this:

Most of the stuff I accumulated was worthless, because I didn’t need it.

Unless you have some plan for selling that valuable thing you got so cheaply, what difference does it make what it’s “worth?”

once you’ve accumulated a certain amount of stuff, it starts to own you rather than the other way around.

Kids are less perceptive. They build a coarser model of their surroundings, and this consumes less energy.

They make the experience of buying stuff so pleasant that “shopping” becomes a leisure activity.

Nothing owns you like fragile stuff.

You’re going to have to think about that thing for years—perhaps for the rest of your life. Every thing you own takes energy away from you. Some give more than they take. Those are the only things worth having.

If I want to spend money on some kind of treat, I’ll take services over goods any day.

The last one is especially worth giving a thought. Either you can get good or services for it. True, services cost you more, but it is a zero future overhead stuff, while goods are not. They involve some overhead.

So the moral at the end of the day is, own stuff if it only provides value to you and makes your life better.